IC2R has developed methodologies and heterogeneous catalysts for the water-free trans-esterification of non-eatable oils (residual olive oil, HOSO, tobacco oil, coffee oil, cardoon oil) containing up to 20% free Fatty Acids.

The oxidative cleavage of oleic acid with O2 as oxidant in solvent-free conditions followed by esterification/trans-esterification of residual glycerids and formed free fatty acids has been achieved in a one-pot process.