IC2R develops methodologies for the synthesis of phosgene-free carbamates and, thus, isocyanates.

Either the reaction of amines with CO2 and alkylating agents

or the reaction of amines with organic carbonates have been used.

Carbamates of primary amines are then transformed into isocyanates

Bio-sourced substrates are used so to produce bio-isocyanates.

Non-Isocyanate (Poly)-Urethanes